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Some news you may have missed out on part 100.

Here it is fellas the big 100. Can't believe we got here.
Apologies for the absence. I waited a few days to allow for the donation links to the New Zealand Attack to garner enough attention on it's own. I thought that would be a bit more important judging by the issue it concerned than anything I could say.
Daily posts from now on.
Here goes.
-International investors taking keen interest to invest in Pakistan: PM
Prime Minister Imran Khan said renowned international investors are taking keen interest to invest in Pakistan due to investors-friendly policies and ease of doing business facilities provided by the country. Radio Pakistan reported that the premier was talking to 8-member delegation of 25 countries who took part in Islamabad Summit. PM Khan asserted that his government believes in providing profitable trade environment and opportunities to investors and business community.
“Our policies will increase trade activities which will be helpful for job creation in Pakistan,” Prime Minister Khan said.
-Adviser to CM refuses ‘increased salary’ from Punjab govt
Awn Chaudhry, Adviser to Chief Minister Punjab Usman Buzdar, joined the bandwagon of censuring the move of Punjab Assembly related to raise in salaries of provincial lawmakers. In a protesting tone on Thursday, Chaudhry wrote on Twitter: “I refuse to accept increased salary from Punjab govt.”
Endorsing the stance of Prime Minister Imran Khan regarding salary increment, he further said, “My sole salary goes to Shaukat Khanum already because I believe that our priority shud [should] be national interest and not increment in salaries.”
Further: -Govt to review the bill raising salaries of lawmakers, says CM Buzdar
Punjab Chief Minister Sardar Usman Buzdar on Thursday said the government will review the bill passed by Punjab Assembly, increasing the salary, allowances, perks and privileges of its members. Speaking to journalists here in Lahore, Buzdar said, salaries cannot be increased by keeping in view, the current economic situation of the country.
On Monday, CM Punjab Usman Buzdar had called on Prime Minister Imran Khan at his office in Islamabad. Sources said that matters of mutual interest, raise in salaries and perks of MPAs, development projects and other issues were came under discussion in the meeting.
Update: -PM Khan asks Punjab governor to not sign summary seeking raise in MPAs’ perks
Prime Minister Imran Khan has directed the Punjab Governor Chaudhry Muhammad Sarwar to hold summary recommending an increase into salaries and perks of provincial legislators, ARY News reported on Thursday.
Governor Sarwar has been stopped to sign summary which would approve hike in salaries and privileges to provincial lawmakers, sources said. The premier has directed to re-introduce the bill in the Punjab Assembly and immediate review on life-time facilities to the provincial lawmakers.
-PM Imran khan announces Pak Visa that encourages foreigners to come to Pakistan.
-Citizens to be fined for littering in Peshawar
In a bid to keep the city clean, Khyber Pakhtunkwa (KP) government has decided to slap fines on the spot over littering in Peshawar.
According to the details, the citizens have been warned that anyone found throwing garbage outside or near their house will be fined in Peshawar. KP government has installed closed-circuit television cameras across Peshawar to catch people red-handed while littering. The Water and Sanitation Services Company Peshawar (WSSCP) has designated some places as garbage points and imposed ban on throwing litter and waste material out of houses.
-PM Imran is Earning Less Than Ministers and Even Punjab MPAs
Since he took charge of the country’s affairs, Prime Minister Imran Khan has been advocating austerity in the government affairs feverishly. However, advocating is not the only thing he has done in this regard. He has launched a nationwide austerity drive, cutting down on expenses of the government departments and all. Recently, another amusing piece of information has surfaced. The Prime Minister is earning even less than the federal ministers in his cabinet. Media outlets got hands on the premier’s salary slip according to which his income is less than those of the chief ministers of four provinces and federal ministers.
-Crisis Management Cell established in Pakistan Foreign Office
In the aftermath of terrorist attack on two mosques in Christchurch, New Zealand yesterday, a Crisis Management Cell has been established at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs , Islamabad. The cell will address the developing situation and update on the well-being of and latest information of Pakistani citizens living in New Zealand.
-In a big economic success, Pakistan current account deficit registers significant decline
The current account deficit (CAD) narrowed down 22.5% to $8.84 billion in the first eight months (July-February) of current fiscal year 2019, reported the State Bank of Pakistan (SBP).
The much-needed drop in the deficit became possible mainly due to a notable surge in workers’ remittance inflows and a significant contraction in the outflow on account of services imports during the period under review.
-Pakistan to receive yet another loan of $6 billion: Report
Pakistan and Asian Development Bank (ADB) on Friday agreed to kick off loan portfolio of $6 billion for various economic sectors. “The CPS for Pakistan from 2019-20 to 2021-22 will provide lending for energy, trade, competitiveness and other sectors during next three years period,” a senior official said.
The upcoming CPS will kick in from the next fiscal year. The ADB plans to provide $2 billion lending to Pakistan every year for the next three years under the program. Pakistan supported an idea of combining sovereign and private lending under the umbrella of the ADB , the official said, citing a meeting between an ADB’s delegation and Minister for Finance Asad Umar.
-Pakistan Railways generate Rs 3 billion extra revenue in past six months
Minister for Railways, Sheikh Rasheed Ahmad has said that Pakistan Railways recorded an increase of 3 billion rupees in the revenue during the last six months. Talking to news men at Karachi Cantt Railway Station on Saturday, he said Pakistan Railways made immense progress in the last six months due to hard work of its officers and labourers.
-State Bank support SMEs setting up, growth
The State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) has come up with many incentives and facilities to support small and medium enterprises in setting up and their growth. For creating awareness about SBP’s SME finance policy and refinance schemes, the State Bank of Pakistan conducted meetings with manufacturers and exporters of cutlery, stainless steel utensils, water pumps and ceramics belonging to SME sector in Gujranwala on Thursday, said a SBP statement issued.
-Government to announce trade policy soon
A new trade policy will be announced soon, said Prime Minister’s Adviser on Commerce Abdul Razak Dawood on Saturday.
Addressing a seminar on ‘Trade opportunities in China, Indonesia and the United States of America’, he said that the new trade policy was being formulated in consultation with all stakeholders to make it more effective and fruitful. The event was organised by the Ministry of Commerce and the Trade Development Authority of Pakistan (TDAP) to maximise its outreach to the business community. In this regard, all registered chambers and trade associations from across the country were invited to give their input in these consultative sessions.
-Pakistan’s medicinal imports rise by 9.74pc
Pakistan imported medicinal product worth $656.092 million during the first seven months of current fiscal year, showing growth of 9.74 per cent, when compared to the import of $597.844 million during the corresponding period of last month.
According to the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (PBS), Pakistan imported 13,781 metric tons of medicinal products during July-January (2018-2019) against imports of 597,844 metric tons during July-January (2017-2018), showing increase of 9.36 per cent in term of quantity.
On year-on year basis, the imports of medicinal product witnessed growth of 1.71 per cent in January 2019, when compared to the import of the same month of last year. The medicinal imports during January 2019 were recorded at $82.115 million against the imports of $80.738 million in January 2018.
-GDP expected to grow at an average of 5.4pc in next five years
The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is expected to grow at an average of 5.4 per cent during the next five years, with highest growth of 6.7 per cent to be witnessed in fiscal year 2022-23, according to preliminary figures of 12th Five Year Plan (2018-23). According to the provisional figures of the draft of the 12th Five Year Plan, the economy would grow at four per cent during the current fiscal year (2018-19), followed by 4.6 per cent growth rate in FY 2019-20, 5.5 per cent growth in 2020-21, 6.2 per cent in 2021-22 and 6.7 per cent in 2022-23. At average, the economy would grow at the rate of 5.4 per cent, according to draft of the Five Year Plan.
The break up figures reveal that the agriculture sector would grow by 1.9 per cent during the current year followed by 3.2 per cent growth in 2019-20, 3.7 per cent in 2020-21, 3.9 per cent in 2021-22 and four per cent in 2022-23. At an average, the agriculture sector would grow at 3.3 in next five years. The industrial growth is expected at 2.8 per cent during the current fiscal year, followed by 4.3 per cent expansion in 2019-20, 6.1 per cent in 2020-21, 7.6 per cent in 2021-22 and 8.4 per cent in 2022-23. The average growth of Industrial sector is expected at 5.8 per cent during the next five years.
-Singapore based company willing to bring $2bn investment to Pakistan
A Singapore based company is willing to bring USD 2 billion investment in Pakistani shipping sector which would help create nearly four thousand jobs in the local industry.
Currently Pakistan is paying four billion dollar freight to foreign ships which can be saved, Chairman of Global Radiance Group Abdul Latif Siddiqui said in an interview with The News. At present the country has nine ships, three tankers and six bulk carriers where less than 65,786 seafarers, 18,988 officers and 46,798 crew are employed.
-IHOP to Open 19 Restaurants in Pakistan
IHOP plans to open its first location in Pakistan by the end of the year, part of the American pancake restaurant’s efforts to seek new revenue abroad. The first branch will open in Karachi, and will be followed by 18 more across the country over the next nine years, parent Dine Brands Global Inc. said Monday. Nine of the franchises will be operated by Pakistan-based Gerry’s Group, and the rest will be sub-franchised.
After a couple of dismal years, the chain has rebounded recently under Dine Brands Chief Executive Officer Steve Joyce, who said in a statement that international development is a major component of the company’s return to growth. Same-store sales, a key performance metric for restaurant chains, have climbed for the past four quarters. Joyce cited Pakistan’s rapidly growing economy as part of the reason to open there.
-World Bank sees Pakistan's potential to be a $2 trillion economy
Pakistan could become a $2 trillion economy in the next 28 years if it remains steadfast in its reforms and manages to reduce its population growth rate to 1.2%.
“With sustained reforms, Pakistan could be a $2 trillion economy when it will turn 100 in the next 28 years,” said the World Bank (WB) Country Director Patchamuthu Illangovan while sharing the main findings of the ‘Pakistan @100- Sharing the Future 2047′ report on Monday. “The $2 trillion economy means an upper middle-income country where per capita income will be $5,702 but it will have to halve its population growth rate to 1.2% by 2047,” he added.
-First Thar-coal based power plant starts generating power
The first 330-megawatt power plant based on Thar coal was connected to the national grid after it started generating power from the world’s seventh largest coal reserves. This was announced by Sindh Chief Minister Murad Ali Shah on his official Twitter account. “What a great day for Pakistan! The first 330MW power plant based on Thar coal synced with National Grid,” he tweeted. “Grateful to Almighty Allah, and humbled to have been able to play a small part as Sindh is firmly putting Pakistan on the road to energy security!”
-World Bank appreciates PM Imran Khan’s vision for progress of Pakistan
A delegation of World Bank headed by Hartwig Schafer, Vice President South Asia called on Prime Minister Imran Khan at PM Office. The delegation appreciated Prime Minister’s vision regarding the progress of the country especially his focus on economic stability of the country, human development and addressing the issue of stunted growth due to malnutrition.
The delegation briefed the Prime Minister about various ongoing projects of the World Bank in various sectors including water supply, sewerage and waste management, transportation and connectivity, capacity building and ease of doing business in the country. The Prime Minister appreciated World Bank’s continued engagement with Pakistan and its support towards capacity building, infrastructure development and economic growth.
-Mashal Khan’s father satisfied with ATC verdict in lynching case
The father of late Mashal Khan expressed satisfaction over the verdict given by an anti-terrorism court on Thursday, awarding life imprisonment to two convicts, including Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) councilor Arif Khan in the lynching case.
The ATC, however, acquitted two other accused, including Sabir and Izhar for want of evidence in the Mashal Khan lynching case. Mashal’s father, Iqbal Khan, expressed gratitude on the pronouncement of the decision which was scheduled to be announced on March 16 but was delayed until March 21 for some unknown reason.
-Proton to set up first South Asian factory in Pakistan
Proton will be setting up a factory in Pakistan that will be its first facility in South Asia. The plant will be a joint effort between the Malaysian carmaker and its local partner Alhaj Automotive. This was revealed by high commissioner of Malaysia to Pakistan Ikram Mohammad Ibrahim, reported by Bernama. The envoy said that the agreement between Proton and Alhaj was signed last year, and Proton sees big potential in the venture.
“In terms of the potential of the Pakistan auto market, Proton feels it is big. That’s why Proton has agreed to work with Alhaj to build an assembly plant near Karachi in the Sindh province. This is significant because it will be Proton’s first plant in South Asia and the population of this country alone is 210 million,” Ikram told Malaysian media at the High Commission of Malaysia office in Islamabad.
The media is in Pakistan with prime minister Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad, who is making a three-day official visit to the country starting today. The PM and his Pakistan counterpart Imran Khan are expected to officiate a symbolic groundbreaking ceremony of the Proton factory tomorrow.
-Pakistan among top 20 gainers on World Happiness index
Pakistan is among the top 20 gainers on the World Happiness index this year, ranked at 67th place, a jump of eight spots from last year's ranking at 75.
The United Nations Sustainable Development Solutions Network's annual World Happiness Report ranked 156 countries based on six indicators: income per capita, life expectancy, social support, freedom, generosity and corruption.
Finland was once again ranked as the happiest country in the world. Denmark, Norway and Iceland clinched the second, third and fourth positions, respectively. South Sudan took the last spot in the ranking.
-Peshawar BRT project to be completed by March 23: Shaukat Yousufzai
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) Information Minister Shaukat Yousufzai has said that the Peshawar Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) project will be completed by March 23, ARY News reported on Friday. In his statement, the minister said the province was lacking number of the buses for the project. “In order to examine the flaws in the project, the provincial administration was starting its test service”, the minister said.
-ADB approves $9m financing for KP projects
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) has approved $9 million in project readiness financing (PRF) to support the preparation and design of urban sector projects in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), which will support the federal government in accelerating the delivery of critical infrastructure in the rapidly urbanizing province.
This is the first project approved under the PRF in Central and West Asia, which is part of a set of new financing instruments approved by ADB’s Board of Directors to help deliver projects in a faster and more responsive manner, said a statement issued by ADB on Tuesday. The PRF features simplified documentation and supports project preparation and engineering design activities that help ensure that projects are “shovel ready”, reducing both overall time and cost to borrowers.
The PRF will support the preparation for the first two phases of the proposed Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Cities Improvement Project (KPCIP). The proposed projects will help the cities of Abbottabad, Kohat, Mardan, Peshawar, and others in KP to improve their access to quality urban services and civic amenities through enhanced municipal infrastructure, public urban spaces, and transport facilities.
-Pakistan may soon hit oil, gas jackpot: PM
Prime Minister Imran Khan on Thursday indicated that Pakistan was on the verge of hitting a kind of jackpot in the form of discovering a huge reserve of oil and gas. “Just pray that our hopes and expectations from the offshore drilling being carried out by the ExxonMobil-led consortium prove to be true,” he said.
“There’s already been a delay of about three weeks, but if the indications we are getting from the companies are anything to go by, there’s a strong possibility that we may discover a very big reserve in our waters. And if that happens, Pakistan will altogether be in a different league,” he said.
-China to deposit $2.1bn with Pakistan by Monday: finance ministry
Pakistan will receive loan worth ¥15bn ($2.1bn) from China by Monday, said finance ministry on Thursday. Finance ministry spokesperson Dr. Khaqan Najeeb Khan confirmed that the State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) would receive 15 billion yuan loan from China by Monday. He said that all procedural formalities for the transfer of the loan being provided to Pakistan by the Beijing had been completed and the amount would be deposited in the SBP account by March 25.
-Pakistan, Malaysia sign five MoUs: Finance Minister
Finance Minister Asad Umar on Friday said Pakistan and Malaysia have signed five memorandums of understanding in various sectors. In his informal talk with the mediamen in the federal capital, the minister said Malaysia has expressed interest in buying meat and rice from Pakistan.
The Malaysian delegation also showed their interest in buying Pakistani made JF-17 Thunder fighter jets. In this regard, Umar maintained that the Malaysian authorities have invited Pakistan to attend defence exhibition, to display its JF-17 jets. The finance minister further added, it was also agreed to open branches of banks between both the countries.
-‘Govt to restructure five public companies soon’
Petroleum Minister Ghulam Sarwar Khan has announced that the board of directors of five public sector companies working under the aegis of the Ministry of Petroleum would be restructured soon. These include Sui Northern Gas Pipeline Limited (SNGPL), Sui Southern Gas Company Limited (SSGCL), Oil and Gas Development Company Limited (OGDCL), Pakistan Petroleum Limited (PPL) and Pakistan Mineral Development Corporation (PMDC).
According to a statement issued by the ministry on Thursday, fresh appointments would be made on these BODs strictly on the basis of merit. “Provincial representation would also be ensured.” It said for the first time in the country’s corporate history, women have been delegated on these BODs. “Under new laws, every board shall ensure the presence of at least one woman.”
-Foreign airlines to launch operation from Pakistan soon: minister
Federal Minister for Privatisation and Aviation Mohammed­ Mian Soomro has said that six to eight foreign airlines are interested in launching their operation from Pakistan.
Talking to the media after planting a sapling at Karachi airport on Monday, he said that Air France, Norwegian Air and a Saudi airline were among those carriers which intended to begin their operation in Pakistan. He said that because of providing ease of doing business foreign airlines wanted to start operations in Pakistan and talks were continuing with them. The minister said that the new aviation policy had been sent to the federal cabinet for its approval.
-US ties with Pakistan are now very good: Trump
After months of strained relations between Islamabad and Washington, United States President Donald Trump on Friday said ties with Pakistan were “very good” at the moment. The president made the remarks before boarding Marine One from the White House’s South Lawn.
When asked about Washington’s relationship with Islamabad, the US president said the administration will be meeting with the leadership in Pakistan. “Pakistan – we will be meeting with Pakistan,” he told reporters.
-Govt all set to revamp textile sector: Dawood
Advisor to Prime Minister on Commerce Abdul Razak Dawood said on Wednesday that the government has finalised policy interventions for upgradation and value addition in the textile sector with enhanced market access. Addressing the 5th international conference on ‘value addition and innovation in textile’ organised by National Textile University (NTU) Faisalabad, he said that now it was time for the business community to play its due role in capturing the global textile market.
He said that textile was the main economic strength of Pakistan but the entire textile chain had inherent problems of technology upgradation, adding that starting from ginning up to textile garments, the entire chain was working with obsolete technology. He said the government had introduced new reforms through policy interventions. “We are working on a progressive industrial policy which will be compatible with the emerging challenges and will be based on diversification and expansion,” he added.
-Military contingents from these six friendly countries to participate in Pakistan Day Parade
Preparations have been completed for the 72nd Pakistan Day parade going to be held at the Parade Ground in Islamabad tomorrow (Saturday).
All three armed forces will take part in the parade. Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad will be the chief guest at the ceremony. This year, the Pakistan Day celebrations will be special as military contingents from China, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Sri Lanka and Saudi Arabia will also participate in the parade.
-Federal government releases huge sum of Rs 374 billion for mega projects under PSDP
The Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) government has released Rs374 billion (55.41 percent) including Rs160.3 billion foreign aid for different development projects under the Public Sector Development Programme (PSDP) 2018-19 against the total budgeted allocation of Rs 675 billion.
-Top international tourism company to make millions of dollars of investment in Pakistan
As the International Hospitality Investment Group (IHIG) is investing 118 Million Dollars in the tourism industry of Pakistan, the CEO of this resourceful multinational enterprise – Noor ul Asif, along with its Chairman, Alun Richards, held a meeting with the Chairman Board of Tourism, Zulfi Bukhari, Special Advisor on Political Affairs to the Prime Minister, Naeem ul Haq and the Chairman Board of Investment (BOI), Haroon Sharif.
The meeting took place at the Prime Minister’s Secretariat in Islamabad to discuss the prospects of investment in Pakistan. Zulfi Bukhari assured the Chairman of IHIG about Pakistan government’s commitment to extend all possible support to foreign investors.
-PTI government launches yet another initiative for overseas Pakistanis
PTI government launches yet another initiative for overseas Pakistanis. Prime Minister's Special Assistant on Overseas Pakistanis Zulfi Bukhari inaugurated “Workers Foree Remittance Account” facility at the office of the Protectorate of Emigrants in Karachi on Wednesday. Addressing the inaugural ceremony, Zulfi Bukhari said it is important to have transparency and efficiency in financial transactions and this product enables transparent transactions and remittances .
-International investment Conference to be held in Lahore
Punjab Minister for Industries & Trade Mian Aslam Iqbal here Tuesday chaired a meeting that finalised arrangements for an International Investment Conference, to be held on April 12, 2019. On this occasion, the minister directed the authorities concerned to make the best arrangements for holding of the conference, which would be held on April 12 at Expo Centre Johar Town.
-PTI govt clears Rs80b project for CPEC’s western route
The government on Thursday cleared a Rs80-billion project for western route of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) amid difficulties in arranging funds for new schemes due to paucity of resources.
The Central Development Working Party (CDWP) recommended the doubling of track on the Kuchlak-Zhob section of N-50 highway for approval of the Executive Committee of National Economic Council (Ecnec), according to a statement issued by the planning ministry.
However, the project was cleared in haste as the Ministry of Planning had received PC-I of the scheme just 12 hours before its approval, denying it time to critically review the mega project. The Kuchlak-Zhob section was cleared amid uncertainty over the fate of another western route project, Dera Ismail Khan-Zhob section of N-50, due to lack of funding.
-Weekly inflation falls 0.19pc
The weekly inflation for the combined income group during the week ended on March 21 witnessed a decrease of 0.19pc as compared to the previous week. The Sensitive Price Indicator (SPI) for the week under review was recorded at 248.30 points against 248.77 points registered in the previous week, according to the data released by Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (PBS).
-PSX ends 147 points higher, breaks three-day losing streak
Breaking its three-day losing streak, the Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX) ended the last trading session of the week in green. Foreign investors continued buying on Thursday and recorded a net inflow of $0.601 million.
According to the latest data published by the State Bank of Pakistan (SBP), foreign exchange reserves held by the central bank inflated by 8.81pc on a weekly basis and were recorded at $8.84 billion. The bank recently received $1 billion as part of a financial assistance package from the United Arab Emirates. Moreover, as per reports, Pakistan is all set to receive $2.1 billion loan from China in the coming week. The injection of funds is expected to increase foreign currency reserves to double digits after almost a year.
submitted by FashBasher1 to pakistan [link] [comments]

[OT] Remember that project I asked for help for a few weeks ago? Here it is!

The application of various metals and composite materials in sports car and formula 1 car design

Sports are where the extremes of physical ability, mental toughness, grit, and determination are tested, and pushed to the limit. Motorsports are no different: Top class sports cars and formula one cars can experience up to 5g’s of force through acceleration, braking, and high speed cornering. This translates to extreme stress, strain, and load on the chassis, suspension, tyres, engine and drivetrain of the car. As such, construction materials must be able to withstand the extreme conditions experienced in the heat of competition. Various materials have been used for sports car componentry, with strengths and weaknesses of particular materials lending themselves to certain applications. Motorsports have seen the development of cutting edge lightweight materials that are as strong as they are light, both of which are desirable in the application of motorsports, where 300km races can be decided by seconds.
The Chassis
From a structural point of view, the most important part of sports car construction is the chassis. The chassis forms the structural base to which the rest of the car is mounted onto. There are many types of chassis, but the two most common in top level motorsport are space-frame chassis – metallic tubing welded together into a structurally strong framework - and monocoque chassis – one or two pieces of metal or carbon fibre moulded into shape before curing. Monocoques tend to be used in top level prototype or open wheel racing, whereas space-frames are more commonly found in GT racing. In either case, the chassis material must have appropriate physical properties in order to withstand the forces of racing.
Chassis construction materials must be light, strong, and resist flexing or warping. Low density materials are always favoured in motorsport as mass is inversely proportional to the force required to accelerate, brake, and change direction, resulting in better overall performance. Strength and modulus (the measure of stiffness) are also desirable to cope with the high loads experienced in competition; weak materials may flex – transferring work into the flexion of the chassis instead of the handling of the car – or break under load.
Materials
A variety of different materials have been used for chassis construction through history. Steel was the material of choice for early cars and sports cars in general, until the onset of magnesium and aluminium alloys in the late 40’s. While other metals such as tungsten have been considered, magnesium and aluminium constitute the majority of space-frame chassis in modern motorsport. Monocoque chassis, while originally fashioned from hand-crafted aluminium, are today moulded from carbon fibre sheets. This was first implemented by the McLaren F1 team for the MP4/1 in 1980.1 Table 1 shows a comparison of the most common materials and their properties.
Table 1: Comparison of various materials and their physical properties (adapted from [2])
Material Density ρ (g cm-3) Tensile strength, σ (MPA) Tensile Modulus, E (GPa) Specific Strength (σ/ρ) Specific Modulus(E/ρ)
Steel 7.80 1300 200 167 26
Aluminium 2.81 350 73 124 26
Titanium 4.00 900 108 204 25
Magnesium 1.80 270 45 150 25
Fibreglass 2.10 1100 75 524 21.5
IM Carbon Fibre 1.51 2500 151 1656 100
HM Carbon Fibre 1.54 1550 212 1006 138
While steel has one of the higher tensile strengths, it’s comparatively large density results in a lower specific strength than lighter metals such as titanium or fibreglass. While aluminium and magnesium have low values for strength and modulus, their reduced density gives both materials comparable specific strengths and specific modulus to steel. However, the clear stand-out materials lie at the bottom; IM (intermediate modulus) carbon fibre and HM (high modulus) carbon fibre have the highest strength and modulus respectively, and their comparatively low density lends to having the best specific strength and specific modulus.
Carbon Fibre
IM and HM carbon are subclasses of carbon fibre materials - synthetic polymer fibres woven together, before combining with a resin. The product is then cured, with the curing temperature having a major effect on the physical properties. While higher temperatures induce better tensile strength and modulus, without further treatment these carbon fibre materials also suffer from extreme brittleness i.e. they crack more easily. However, as carbon fibre materials have the strength and modulus at the level of, or exceeding that of steel, for around a quarter of the mass, the brittleness is a necessary trade-off in the pursuit of performance. Pre-treating the fibres or controlling weave pattern can strengthen the material in certain directions, allowing for better strength or modulus in directions of applied force, which increases the efficiency of the material. In modern sports cars, carbon fibre is used in construction of the monocoque, the bodywork, and in front and rear aerodynamics, while in formula one the suspension and shock absorbers are also carbon fibre materials. 2
Due to the variety of preparation methods of carbon fibre, it can be used to replace denser materials in many applications in sportscar and open wheel motorcars, to the point that carbon fibre composites “make up almost 85% of the volume [of a formula 1 car]... for less than 25% of its mass”. 2 However, while carbon fibre materials have vast applications in everything from chassis to bodywork to suspension components, there are some applications to which it is not suitable.
Engine and Drivetrain
Due to the high temperatures and torque produced in internal combustion engines, materials that can cope with high heats without warping or losing their strength are extremely favoured. Again, steel was the early material of choice, before being replaced predominantly by aluminium in the mid 50’s. Aluminium is now almost universally used for engine blocks in cars worldwide, regardless of application. 4 However, for other engine components (such as valves and rods), titanium is chosen due to its better strength and modulus4; while the block is essentially stationary, the rods, valves, and shafts are in motion against the forces in the engine. Thus, higher strength and modulus is required, at the expense of more mass. Titanium is also used in other high heat applications, such as exhaust and mufflers. 4
The next step in the powertrain is the transmission, normally consisting of a fly-ash aluminium alloy, reducing the mass of conventional steel or iron housing by a large amount. 5 The driveshaft then transports the power as torque through to the differential. The material chosen for the driveshaft must be able to withstand massive amounts of torque over a substantial length, while still remaining lightweight enough to maintain balance within the spinning rod. This is another area where aluminium or specialised carbon fibre have replaced the original steel components over time, with weight savings in the realms of 50%. 5
Novel materials and applications
As motorsport is on the forefront of lightweight, strong and stiff materials, novel materials are being created for the express use in sportscars or lightweight supercars, as well as the use of more common materials in novel ways. Carbotanium is one such novel material, developed by Modena Design, a subsidiary of the Pagani motor company. The 5 layer titanium alloy/carbon fibre composite has strength and modulus exceeding that of the titanium alloy alone, at a much lower density, to the extent that the specific strength of the carbotanium is more than 4 times that of the titanium alloy alone. The titanium alloy is cleaned with a basic solution before a wash with hydrofluoric/nitric acid combination, followed by sandblasting the titanium on the active areas. The active areas are then coated in platinum, before priming and then bonding to the carbon fibre. 6 Pagani use this material exclusively on the Pagani Zonda R and the Huayra, replacing traditional carbon fibre bodywork and componentry.
In order prevent the spread of the extreme heat generated by the engine and exhaust systems, an effective way of absorbing or reflecting energy must be used. In the 1990 McLaren F1, the interior of the engine bay is coated in a thin layer of gold metal, which acts as a reflective heat shield. Gold is an excellent reflector of IR radiation,7 which is a major contributor to the heat transfer from the engine within the engine bay, as well as being less reactive than metals with similar reflectivity. This lowered reactivity prevents the tarnishing of gold in air, whereas other metals (such as silver or copper) oxidise in air, reducing their effectiveness. Gold coatings are used on componentry on formula 1 cars close to the engine or exhaust gases, to prevent denaturing or warping of heat sensitive materials such as carbon fibre.
The vastly different roles for materials in sports cars and formula one cars makes choosing the correct metal, alloy, or composite imperative to the performance of the car. Materials need to range from extremely stiff and light for the chassis, to denser but thermally resistant materials to be used in the engine and drivetrain. Many different metals and alloys have been used in the past, only to be replaced by less dense and stronger carbon fibre or composite materials. Development of these materials are ongoing, and use motorsports as a mobile testing ground for these new materials.
References
  1. Image taken from "Monocoque - Survival Cell." Technical F1. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Aug. 2015. http://www.formula1-dictionary.net/monocoque.html.
  2. Savage, G. "DComposite Materials Technology in Formula 1 Motor Racing." (n.d.): n. pag. Honda Racing F1 Team, July 2008. Web. 15 Aug. 2015. http://www.formula1-dictionary.net/Big/Composite%20Materials%20Technology%20in%20Formula%201%20Motor%20Racing.pdf.
  3. "Aluminium in the Automotive Industry." Al. UC RUSAL, n.d. Web. 15 Aug. 2015. .
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